Lesson: how to correctly join independent clauses
Take a look at this sentence.
The Martians want to look their best, they wear their green jumpsuits.
There is something wrong here. (And it’s not that the Martians think jumpsuits are high fashion.) Notice the comma between best and they? That’s called a comma splice. Sounds painful, doesn’t it?
The comma splice is a common error in sentence construction. When the parts of the sentence on each side of the comma can stand alone as separate sentences (These are called independent clauses.), you can’t use a comma to separate them.
Don’t fear. There are several remedies to the comma splice.
1. Separate into two sentences
Because independent clauses can function as separate sentences, you can use a period to separate them. Here’s how this correction looks:
The Martians want to look their best. They wear their green jumpsuits.
In some instances, it might also make sense to use a question mark to separate the independent clauses, such as in this comma splice example:
Did the Martians look silly in their green jumpsuits, yes they did.
Since the first independent clause is actually a question, you’ll want to place a question mark after it. Here is how this correction looks:
Did the Martians look silly in their green jumpsuits? Yes they did.
In other instances, you may want to use an exclamation point to separate the independent clauses, such as in this comma splice example:
The martians look ridiculous, green jumpsuits are ugly.
Because the first independent clause lends itself to more emphasis, you could use an exclamation point after it. This correction looks like this:
The martians look ridiculous! Green jumpsuits are ugly.
2. Separate with a comma and a coordinating conjunction
Coordinating conjunctions are the words and, nor, but, or, yet, and so. These words join parts of a sentence together. In sentences with more than one independent clause, they work with a comma to separate the clauses. Here’s how this correction looks:
The Martians want to look their best, so they wear their green jumpsuits.
3. Separate with a semicolon
If both independent clauses deal with the same general idea, then you can separate them with a semicolon. Here’s how this correction looks:
The Martians want to look their best; they wear their green jumpsuits.
However, if the independent clauses are not about the same general idea, then the semicolon isn’t the best option. For example, take a look at this comma splice example:
The Martians wear their green jumpsuits, they eat purple custard.
The first independent clause deals with wearing clothes. The second deals with eating food. Since these two ideas are not related, a semicolon shouldn’t connect them. To make it correct, you would want to use option 1:
The Martians wear their green jumpsuits. They eat purple custard.
or option 2:
The Martians wear their green jumpsuits, and they eat purple custard.
Voilà. That’s how you fix comma splices. (Just try to stay away from Martians. I heard they’re poor dressers.)